Vocabulary Words: Unit 1

The following are the vocabulary words and definitions for Unit 1: Geology.

In order to familiarize yourself with this unit, and to better understand the language that will be used, students should study one vocabulary word and its meaning each night , starting September 9, 2015.

Mrs. Jennings will post when a set of words will be given in a quiz or exam. Learning these words will benefit each student a great deal, as it will help students to comprehend and understand what they will be reading, viewing and listening to during this unit.

Students can create vocabulary cards with the word, meaning and a picture copied to each card. Students should also copy each word to the back of their student notebooks or in their STEM planner. (- Vocabulary Source: Concepts and Challenges, Earth Science).



Objectives: 1) Identify and describe the four branches of Earth Science. 2) Name and describe the three main parts of Earth: lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. 3) Describe Earth’s major parts: the crust, the mantle and the core.

Homework: 9/17/15                  Due Date: September 21, 2015

Vocabulary Words:             Definition/Meaning: List 1

Earth science                              study of Earth and its history

specialist                                      person who studies or works on only one part of a subject

sphere                                           round, three dimensional object

lithosphere                                  solid part of Earth

hydrosphere                                part of Earth that is water

atmosphere                                 envelope of gases surrounding Earth

crust                                             solid, thin outer layer of Earth

mantle                                          thick layer of rock below the crust

core                                               innermost region of Earth, center – (outer core &  inner core)

globe                                            three dimensional model of Earth’s surface

Objectives: 1) Explain why a globe is the most useful type of Earth map. Describe what happens when the round Earth is shown on a flat map. 2) Explain what a map projection is. Name three kinds of map projections. 3) Explain how hemispheres, latitude,longitude, meridians, and parallels are all related.

Vocabulary Words:          Definition/Meaning: List 2

map                                             flat model of earth’s surface

distortion                                  error in shape, size, or distance

map projection                        drawing of Earth’s surface, or part of it, on a flat surface

parallel                                      horizontal line on a map or globe that circles Earth from east ….                                               to west at intervals starting at the equator.

latitude                                      distance in degrees north or south of the equator

Longitude                                 measurement in degrees east or west of the prime meridian

meridian                                   line on a map or globe running from the North Pole to the     ….                                               South Pole along Earth’s surface

scale                                          feature that relates distances on a map to actual distances on ….                                               Earth’s surface

symbol                                      drawing on a map that represents a real object

legend                                       list of map symbols and their meaning

elevation                                  height of a point on Earth above or below sea level

topography                              general form and shape of the land on Earth’s surface

Objective : Define element and compound. Identify and describe some common compounds.

Vocabulary Words:        Definition/Meaning: List 3

atoms                                      smallest part of an element that can be identified as that       …….                                         element

element                                  simple substance that cannot be broken down into simpler       ….                                            substances by ordinary chemical means

compound                             substance made up of two or more elements that are chemically …..                                           combined

molecule                                smallest part of a substance that has all the properties of that ……                                          substance

mineral                                  naturally occurring non living solid formed from elements or …..                                           compounds and having a definite chemical makeup and regular …..                                           atomic structure

physical property                 observable characteristic that describes an object

streak                                     color of the powder left by a mineral

luster                                      how a mineral’s surface reflects light

hardness                                property of a mineral that relates to how much the mineral        ….                                            resist being scratched

acid test                                 test that helps identify minerals containing calcium carbonate

density                                   amount of matter in a given volume