Unit 2: Vocabulary Words & Concepts – 803

Vocabulary Quiz 1:

  • Gravity – Force of attraction between all objects in the universe. On Earth all objects fall towards the center of Earth’s mass.
  • Newton – The Newton is the basic SI unit of force.
  • Weight is an example of force. An objects weight is a measure of the force of gravity acting on the object. When you weigh an object you measure the pull of gravity on the object.
  • Spring scale –Measures the force of gravity on an object.
  • Friction – Force that opposes the motion of an object.
  • Useful Friction – makes motion possible, riding a bike.
  • Harmful Friction- makes motion difficult (machine part with moving parts that touch, these parts can produce heat and can cause parts to wear out.
  • Compression is the force applied when two objects are pushed together. Think of a stack of heavy stones. The force crushing down on the bottom stone is compression.
  • Tension is the force applied when an object is pulled or stretched. A good example is the surface of a trampoline. When someone jumps down on the trampoline, the material stretches.
  • Lubricants – materials that reduce friction such as lubricants in a car’s engine.
  • Moving Against Friction – Friction makes it hard to move objects.
  • Rolling Friction – reducing friction to make it easier to move objects.
  • Air resistance – force that goes against (opposes) the movement of an object in air .
  • Terminal velocity – speed of which air resistance and gravity acting on a falling object are equal.
  • Vacuum – empty space.
  • Pressure- force per unit area . Pressure = force / area
  • Air pressure- pressure caused by the weight of Earth’s atmosphere.
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Energy: Vocabulary Quiz 2:

  • Potential energy – the energy stored in an object because of its position.
  • Thermal energy – warmth, this energy increases as its temperature increases.
  • Chemical energy – the energy stored in chemical bonds. When chemicals are broken apart and new chemicals are formed, some of this energy is released.
  • Radiant energy – the energy carried by light.
  • Electrical energy – energy that is carried by electrical current.
  • Nuclear Energy – The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom to generate electricity. Nuclear energy can be transformed into different types of energy.
  • Law of conservation of energy – energy is never created or destroyed. The only thing that changes is the form in which energy appears.
  • Renewable energy – this is an energy source that is replenished continually. Example – hydroelectric power plants uses rain, snow, water from rivers to generate electrical energy.
  • Alternative resources- these include solar energy, wind, and geothermal energy.
  • Inexhaustible resources – this is an energy source that can’t be used up by humans, such as solar energy.
  • Work – work is done when a force causes an object to move in the same direction that the force is applied.
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Vocabulary Quiz 3: Loads

  • Tensile strength of materials. This is the maximum force that can be applied to a material without pulling it apart.
  • Dead loads — The forces applied by all of the static components of the structure, like beams, columns, rivets, concrete and dry wall.
  • Live loads — The forces applied by all of the “moving” elements that can affect a structure, including people, furniture, cars, and normal weather events like rain, snow and wind.
  • Dynamic loads — Dynamic loads are live loads that occur suddenly with great force. Examples are earthquakes, tornados, hurricanes and airplane crashes.
  • rotational equilibrium – keeping a building “balanced.”
  • One of the most important principles of structural engineering is loading.
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Newton’s Laws: