Class 803 – 8th grade Unit 1: Reproduction, Heredity & Evolution

Basic Plant and Flower Parts

Basic Parts of a Plant:
Bud – the undeveloped flower of a plant

Flower – the reproductive structure in flowering plants where seeds are produced
Fruit – the ripened ovary of a plant that contains the seeds; becomes fleshy or hard and dry after fertilization to protect the developing seeds Leaf – the light absorbing structure and food making factory of plants; site of photosynthesis

Root – anchors the plant and absorbs water and nutrients from the soil Seed – the ripened ovule of a plant, containing the plant embryo, endosperm (stored food), and a protective seed coat
Stem – the support structure for the flowers and leaves; includes a vascular system (xylem and phloem) for the transport of water and food

Vein – vascular structure in the leaf

Basic Parts of a Flower:
Anther – the pollen-bearing portion of a stamen
Filament – the stalk of a stamen
Ovary – the structure that encloses the undeveloped seeds of a plant Ovules – female reproductive cells of a plant
Petal – one of the innermost modified leaves surrounding the reproductive organs of a plant; usually brightly colored
Pistil – the female part of the flower, composed of the ovary, stigma, and style
Pollen – the male reproductive cells of plants
Sepal – one of the outermost modified leaves surrounding the reproductive organs of a plant; usually green
Stigma – the tip of the female organ in plants, where the pollen lands Style – the stalk, or middle part, of the female organ in plants (connecting the stigma and ovary)
Stamen – the male part of the flower, composed of the anther and filament; the anther produces ———————————————————————————————

Welcome Back! This is going to be our best year ever!

Please take a moment to review the work requirements for Unit 1. This unit contains a lot of information. All academic information in this unit are important and will help students to understand the work that must be mastered for the science 8th grade exams. Students are responsible for completing all assigned work, especially the vocabulary words. All students should come to class prepared with a black & white composition notebook, a pen & pencil (no mechanical pencils are allowed), two folders (last years can be used) and loose leaf paper, last years binders can be used.

All students will complete a Unit 1 Pre –Unit Assessment. This exam will contain questions from the 8th Grade Exam. This exam will be graded but will not count towards a report card grade. The exam will allow Mrs. Jennings to assess where students are academically as they begin the 8th grade. The date will be announced next week.

All students will complete a Pre-living environment regents exam. Date to be determined (TBD)

Vocabulary Section 1: Quiz 1 (TBD)

Organism, characteristic, cell, response, autotroph, heterotroph, homeostasis, cell, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, nuclear membrane, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, Golgi body, vacuole, lysosome, cell wall, cellulose, chloroplast, chlorophyll, unicellular, multicellular, Diffusion, passive transport, osmosis, active transport.


Venn Diagram: Students will complete a Venn diagram to show how plant & animal cells are similar and different from unicellular organisms?

Labs: Working in groups students must complete the following Living Environment Labs:

  2. Observations and Inferences
  3. Introduction to the Microscope
  4. Elodea and Cheek Cells                           
  5. Onion Staining and Cell Size
  6. Introduction to PASCO
  7. PASCO Enzyme Lab
  8. Flower Dissection
  9. PASCO Respiration and Photosynthesis
  10. PASCO Respiration and Photosynthesis
  11. State Mandated: Diffusion thru a Membrane Week 1
  12. State Mandated: Diffusion thru a Membrane Week 2
  13. State Lab: Diffusion thru a Membrane Week 3
  14. Heart Dissection: External
  15. Heart Dissection: Internal
  16. Frog Dissection: External
  17. Frog Dissection: Internal Part 1
  18. Frog Dissection: Internal Part II
  19. State Lab: Making Connections Week 1
  20. State Lab: Making Connections Week 2
  21. State Lab: Making Connections Week 3
  22. State Lab: Making Connections Week 4
  23. Mendelian Genetics: Corn
  24. State Lab: Biodiversity Week 1
  25. State Lab: Biodiversity Week 2
  26. State Lab: Biodiversity Week 3
  27. State Lab: Biodiversity Week 4
  28. State Lab: Beaks of Finches Week 1
  29. State Lab: Beaks of Finches Week 2
  30. State Lab: Beaks of Finches Week 3  
  31. DNA Hybridization
  32. Fish Dichotomous Key
  33. Shell Dichotomous Key


Readings, Videos & Homework:

Reading  information will be distributed in class.

What are living things?

What is a microscope?

What are cells?

How do plant & animal cells differ?

How do materials move in and out of cells?

Why do cells have different shapes?

How do cells produce new cells?

Videos: Types of Reproduction

Asexual Reproduction in Organisms:

The Dividing Star Fish:

Sexual reproduction in flowering plants:


Exam: Multiple Choice & short answer questions.


Vocabulary Section 2: Quiz 2

Reproduction, offspring, asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, trait, inherited, heredity, genetics, sperm cell, egg cell, gamete, meiosis, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), replication, protein synthesis, RNA (ribonucleic acid), karyotype, centromere, genes, allele, homozygous, heterozygous, dominant gene, recessive gene, gender, sepal, pedal, pistil, stamen, perfect flower, imperfect flower, fertilization, pollination.

Project: Construction of a Venn diagram to explain how asexual organisms are similar & different from sexual organism

Labs: Modeling Inheritance, Solving Punnett Squares, Identifying Dominant Genes in Corn, Identify male and female organs in a hibiscus flower.

Readings, Videos & Homework: Reading  information will be distributed in class.

How do organisms make more of their own kind?

What is heredity?

What is meiosis?

What is DNA?

Video: DNA – PBS Documentary:

What are chromosomes?

Why can offspring differ from their parents?

How do genes combine in offspring?

What are incomplete dominance and codominance?

How is gender determined?

What are flowers?

How do plants reproduce asexually?

 Exam: Multiple Choice & short answer questions.


Vocabulary Section 3: Quiz 3

Larva, tadpole, amphibian, Egg, sperm, fertilization, gestation, organ, organ system, gland, endocrine, skeletal system, muscular system, digestive system, circulatory system, respiratory system, excretory system, nervous system, endocrine system.

Project: Students will complete several worksheets to help them identify the major structures & function of each system.

 Readings, Videos & Homework: Reading  information will be distributed in class.

What are insects?

How do insects develop?

How do amphibians develop?

What are mammals?

How do animal embryos develop?

What are tissues?

What are organs & organ systems?

Video: The Human Body & Body System

Exam: Multiple Choice & short answer questions.


Vocabulary Section 4: Quiz 4

Organism, tomato, potato, climate, high humid, rotation, dominant, Blight (Phytophthora infestants), Fungus, decay, foliage (haulm), genetic population, defoliate. Stimulus, behavior, migration, hibernation, inherited diseases, controlled breeding, mass selection, hybridization, inbreeding, cloning, species, evolution, adaptation, mutation, adaptation, pathogen, whit blood cell, antigen, antibody, AIDS, tumor, benign, malignant

Project: Students will create a Venn diagram to explain how asexual organisms are similar & different from sexual organism

Labs: Beaks of Finches

Readings, Videos & Homework: Reading  information will be distributed in class.

What are some inherited diseases?

How does the body fight disease?

What are some bacterial diseases?

What are some viral diseases?

What are noninfectious diseases?

How is genetics used to improve living things?

What is genetic engineering?


How are GMO’s Created?

Genetic Engineering – Animal Pharm

Video: Seeds of Death: Unveiling The Lies of GMO’s

Are GMOs Safe? Neil deGrasse Tyson

10 Genetically Modified Food Facts

What is evolution?

Video: How Evolution Works.

What evidence supports evolution?

What is natural selection?

What are adaptations?

 Socratic Seminar: This information will be discussed in class.

Exam: Multiple Choice & short answer questions


Essay: Case study: “The Great Irish Famine”

Students will research and investigate the causes of “The Great Irish Famine”. Students will write an informative essay or create a story in a diary format in order to explain the following: What caused the Great Irish Famine? Students will explain where Ireland is located, How potatoes reproduce? What were the main causes of the 19th century crop failure in Ireland? They will explain the disease (blight) that affected the potato crops; How the production of potatoes affect the population in Ireland, What happened to the people in Ireland during the famine, did they emigrate, remain, expired etc.? How could England have helped the people of Ireland before or during the famine? Students will share their information in group discussions and a gallery walk.



RST.6.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical text.

RST. 6-8.2 Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge

RST.6.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.

WHST.6–8.4: Produce a clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose and audience.

WHST.6–8.7: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.


Students should begin the year by reviewing the work for Unit 1: Reproduction, Heredity & Evolution. Students are responsible for completing all the academic requirements for this unit. Students should review and study all vocabulary words on a regular basis, and create vocabulary cards or books to help them study these words. A copy of the outline will be returned to the student.